Nicholas Mennona Marino, M.A. 

University of Louisiana at Lafayette

ENGL 102-003-40289: Writing and Culture

Spring 2018

Meeting times: MWF 8-8.50am

Classroom: HL Griffin Hall (HLG) 319

Instructor: Nicholas Mennona Marino, MA

Office: HL Griffin Hall (HLG) 341

Office Mailbox: HL Griffin Hall (HLG) 221

Office Hours: M/W 10am-12pm in HLG 341 and by appointment

Instructor Email: nicholas.marino1@louisiana.edu

Instructor Website: http://www.marinowriter.com/

Instructor Office Phone: (337) 482-5498

Instructor Mobile Phone: (610) 731-5091

 

Course Description and Objectives

This course will cover research based writing. Students will learn how to find scholarly sources, conduct a research question, formulate that question into a thesis, and provide evidence from both the sources and themselves to support that thesis. Students will also learn to view composition as not only concerned with alphanumeric, printed texts.

In English 102, students should learn basics of argument and academic writing including:

how to recognize an argument and explain what makes an argument different from a text whose purpose is solely to inform
the difference between a strong argument and a weak argument (evidence, credibility, logical fallacies, etc.)
how to craft an arguable claim and reason of appropriate scope
general academic norms and ethics involving intellectual property and (MLA) citation
a basic knowledge of classical rhetoric which helps explain why courses like English 101 and 102 remain required throughout the US
an understanding that the shifting expectations for literacy in the 21st century has led to less importance placed on the traditional typewritten essay, and instead an emphasis on multimodal texts that may or may not be digital

The assignments in English 102 focus on meeting the following goals:

Develop a writing project and multimodal composition project through multiple drafts
Connecting ancient ideas about rhetoric with modern exigencies, texts, and audiences
Learn to give and to act on productive feedback to works in progress
Develop facility in responding to a variety of situations and contexts calling for purposeful shifts in voice, tone, level of formality, design, medium, and/or structure
Locate and evaluate (for credibility, sufficiency, accuracy, timeliness, bias, and so on), including journal articles and essays, books, scholarly and professionally established and maintained databases or archives, and informal electronic networks and internet sources
Use strategies – such as interpretation, synthesis, and critique – to compose texts that integrate the writer’s ideas with those from appropriate sources
Practice applying citation conventions systematically in their own work

Textbooks

Course readings will be provided from the instructor digitally via Moodle. Course readings will be drawn from topics such as:

Classical rhetoric
Visual rhetoric
Multimodal Composition

The instructor may provide online access to selections from the following recommended (but not required) texts:

Graff, Gerald, and Cathy Birkenstein. "They Say / I Say": The Moves That Matter in Academic     Writing. 3rd edition. Norton, 2016.  

Identity: A Reader for Writers. Ed. John Scenters-Zapico. Oxford UP, 2013.

University of Louisiana at Lafayette. Freshman Guide to Writing. 7th Edition. Fountainhead         Press, 2016.

Assignments and Grade Breakdown

Your grade will consist of 3 essays, 1 multimodal composition project with a written explanation of the project, 1 annotated bibliography assignment, and 1 portfolio assignment (including a reflection on your work throughout the semester), as well as your participation and attendance grade. Extra credit will be offered to count towards your participation and attendance grade. You will receive assignment prompts for each assignment. You will choose the topic that you want to write about for each essay. The essay assignments must be at least 3 full pages double spaced or else they will be penalized for lack of length. You will receive feedback on your writing from your instructor and your peers. You will have the option to choose whether you want your work to be used for pedagogical or research purposes (whether anonymously or not). Part of the participation grade comes from student willingness to share freewriting responses.

Thee assignment sequence and grade breakdown is:

Narrative essay                                                                                               15%

A nonargument based writing assignment in which you reflect on an experience that helped you learn and or grow as a person.

Rhetorical analysis of a visual text essay                                                       15%

You will choose two visual texts to analyze and identify the rhetorical devices present that add onto the text’s argument. Your visual texts must include at least one image and at least one television commercial that is available for free online, at YouTube or elsewhere.

Annotated bibliography assignment                                                               10%

Pose a research question and formulate a potential answer to that question that will form your thesis. Then list in correct MLA format at least two scholarly sources that address this topic and state how you will use each source to complicate your argument in some way.

Research essay                                                                                                15%

This is an argument based assignment in which you will formulate a thesis and provide evidence supporting it. Your evidence must come from at least 2 scholarly sources as well as your own ideas, examples, and experiences. The annotated bibliography assignment is integrated into this essay, meaning that you do not need to find additional sources beyond those in the annotated bibliography assignment (assuming that you receive a satisfactory grade on the annotated bibliography assignment).

Multimodal composition assignment                                                             20%

This is an argument based assignment consisting of two parts: a multimodal composition and a document of no less than three full pages that explains the rationale, rhetorical motifs, choices, limitations, and potential usages of the multimodal composition. The rationale document must be a typewritten document. The multimodal composition cannot be a typewritten essay. It must use multiple modes and mediums. A YouTube video with sound, for example, uses visual and aural modes and the medium of video (though it could use even more modes and mediums depending on what is in the video). The assignment prompt will provide examples of multimodal projects. Multimodal projects need not be digital and do not require computers to be made. The multimodal project should include some typewritten or spoken words but there is no minimum requirement for the number of words for the project itself.

Portfolio and reflection                                                                                   15%

A reflection on how you have improved as a writer throughout the semester, which parts of the course contributed the most to that improvement, and which pieces of writing you are most proud of. You are encouraged to include screenshots or links to your multimodal composition if applicable.

Participation and attendance                                                                          10%

This includes not just attending class but willingness to participate in class discussions and share your in-class freewriting assignments. Poor attendance and participation can be counteracted by completing the extra credit assignment.

Note: The classical rhetoric reading assignments and multimodal reading assignments are for students’ benefit in their writing. Students will not be quizzed on the absorption of the material. Students may be asked to cite these readings and or notes from the lectures on them in their essays and in one of the extra credit assignment options. Students should always prioritize completing their essays on time over keeping up with the course readings. The course readings will be available on the course Moodle page.

Assignment Topics

Students in this course may write about their own topics, with the following restrictions. Students must select a different topic or text to write about for each writing assignment. It is up to the instructor’s discretion to determine whether the topics of each essay are different enough to be original works. The instructor will provide feedback on the drafts of these assignments, including whether the student must choose a different topic that they have not written about before for this course. Students must write about topics that are issues or matters up for debate with differing views on each side in interpreting them. Not all topics that are issues are necessarily scholarly. Students must be particularly selective in choosing a topic for the scholarly source essay.  

Attendance Policy

The ULL English department allows students to miss up to 10% of class meetings without penalty. This course will meet 33 times, not including two mandatory conferences throughout the semester. Missing either of the conferences counts as an absence. Students can miss up to 4 absences without penalty. The instructor excuses absences only if they are documented. More than 4 absences directly affects a student’s participation and attendance grade. Solid participation, when a student does show up to class, can counteract this, as can the optional extra credit assignment offered at the end of term. Missing excessive class time usually has an impact on a student’s grade beyond participation and attendance, as missing class means missing valuable time to work on one’s writing. 

Plagiarism Policy

Students that plagiarize in this class will automatically fail the assignment in question, except for minor citation issues that do not show an intent to deceive. Further plagiarism puts students at risk of automatically failing the course. The decision to fail the student for a second violation of plagiarism lies with the instructor and the severity of the offenses. Students are encouraged to check citation resources like the Purdue Online Writing Lab website (https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/), instructor materials on essay writing, and their textbooks. Both Writing Arguments and the Freshman Guide to Writing discuss plagiarism and how to avoid it. Students who are unclear about plagiarism should contact the instructor with any issues that they have in understanding it, specifically in terms of MLA style. 

For Students with Disabilities

In accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act, the University of Louisiana at Lafayette makes accommodations for students with disabilities. If you have a documented disability, please contact the Office of Disability Services (ODS) office at 337-482-5252 or ods@louisiana.edu during the first week of classes. ODS will assist you with an accommodation plan. The university also has a Supported Education Program (SEP, http://disability.louisiana.edu/SEP.html), which provides free confidential help on campus for students with psychological disabilities (Bipolar Disorder, Depression, Anxiety, etc.). Please contact Kim A. Warren, MSW, PhD, LCSW, Supported Education Advisor, at 482-5252 or at kimawarren@louisiana.edu. She is located in the Conference Center, Room 126.

Office Hours

It is important to take advantage of office hours. Your professors and instructors are busy people with responsibilities that span beyond the courses they teach. However, they must set aside two office hours each week per class section. During this time, students take priority for their teachers’ attention. No appointment is necessary for office hours. If you cannot attend the office hours listed for your section, please email me and we can arrange a different time to meet. All office hour meetings will be held in my office in HLG 341. Please come prepared with questions that you have about the course, the course readings, or your writing. If you have a question about something university related but not necessarily related to this class, I may still be able to help or direct you to who can help resolve your issue. Asking for help in college is not a sign of weakness but a sign of initiative to succeed, so take advantage of office hours! I’m paid to hold office hours and I have no problem “earning” that money. 

Technology policy

The use of technology is permitted in class so long as it does not cause a distraction to other students. Students may be asked to access the internet in class via laptop or mobile device. Students who do not have access to the internet through a laptop or mobile device will not be penalized but may have to rely on their classmates or the instructor to access the internet in class. 

Students should familiarize themselves with the technology resources available at the Dupré library and elsewhere on campus since this course includes a multimodal assignment (though that assignment does not require the use of a computer).

Students that are interested in composing video based multimodal projects should inquire about joining the AOC Community Media Center in downtown Lafayette. For an affordable yearly membership fee, students may rent digital video equipment. For more information, check out their website @ http://www.aocinc.org/.

Students may also borrow the instructor’s digital camera upon request, with the assumption that they will return it to the instructor in pristine condition.

Late work policy

The instructor does not distinguish between work turned in on time and work turned in late. However, not turning in work on time typically has a negative effect on a student’s grade because falling behind means that the student has less time to devote to each assignment as the semester progresses. Also, turning in work late means that the student misses valuable peer review feedback that improves a student’s writing process. The instructor may not have time to grade first drafts of assignments turned in late, but will be able to grade final drafts so long as they are turned in before the final deadline for all outstanding work.

The instructor will not penalize late work but strongly suggests that students turn in work on time. The instructor reserves the right to set a date, late in the semester, after which the instructor will not accept late work. The instructor will give students plenty of notice about setting such a date. If no date is specified by the instructor, all outstanding work will not be accepted after 27 April 2018 (the last day of class this semester).

Classroom conduct

The instructor is not responsible for making sure that students learn, but is responsible for maintaining an environment in which students can learn. The instructor reserves the right to remove from the classroom students that cause a disruption that threatens this environment.

ULL Writing Center

The Writing Center is a free service located on the first floor of Griffin Hall, in room 107. The Writing Center consultants are experienced writers and students who pride themselves on creating a comfortable environment for every phase of your writing project. From thesis statements, to research planning, document design, to just getting started, the Writing Center staff works to help you become more focused, organized, and confident with your work. In addition to providing the latest style manuals and handbooks, the Writing Center also operates a computer lab, located next door in Griffin Hall, room 108. Both of these services are free, student-operated, and devoted to helping you be a more successful and productive student. Walk-ins are accepted, but scheduling an appointment in advance (482-5224) is recommended. Students who are more than ten minutes late to an appointment must reschedule.

Campus Safety Information

Joseph Pons, Director of the Office of Environmental Health and Safety, has asked that in accordance with the UL Lafayette’s Environmental Health and Safety Procedures, to please include the following information on in all syllabi:

1.      University Police are the first responders for all emergencies on campus.  Dial 911 or 482-6447 to report any emergency.
2.      The Emergency Information Floor Plan is posted in the hallways for every building.  This document includes evacuation routes and other important information.  Please familiarize yourself with this document.
3.      In the event that the building fire alarm is sounded, please exit the building immediately and notify University Police. Do not use the building elevator - look for the illuminated Exit Signs to direct you to safety.
4.      During times of emergency, information may be available on the University's Emergency Hotline - 482-2222. This number is printed on the back of your ID card.
5.      The University utilizes a text message service to notify its students and employees of campus wide emergencies.  To subscribe to this service, log on to www.ul.mobilecampus.com .
6.      If you have a special medical condition that might render you incapacitated during class, please make this known to your instructor as soon as possible, including any emergency contact information for your next of kin or similar.

Class Schedule for MWF

Note: The instructor reserves the right to move assignment deadlines forward.

Note: Because of the inevitability of a course schedule not reflecting the hectic reality of teaching a class, this course schedule is subject to change and does not include required readings that will be posted to Moodle. Students are expected to read the assigned readings before each class. Students should check their Moodle page for this course in order to stay updated on which readings are due when.

Note: Most of the classical rhetoric readings are available at the Perseus Digital Library webpage. The link to this page is http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/ . On the homepage, type the name of the work or author in the search box in the top right of the page. You should see some search results. Click on the correct text (make sure you click on the English link instead of Latin or Greek) and then you can navigate from chapter to chapter on the text’s homepage. To navigate from one chapter to another, enter the chapter at the box in the top center of the page. Alternatively, you can click on the subsection links on the left side of the page.

W 10 JAN

Rhetoric hypothetical game

Primary questions

Class introductions

F 12 JAN

M 15 JAN

NO CLASS – MARTIN LUTHER KING HOLIDAY

W 17 JAN

CLASS CANCELED DUE TO WEATHER

DROP/ADD DEADLINE

Discuss narrative essay assignment prompt

F 19 JAN

M 22 JAN

W 24 JAN

F 26 JAN

Narrative essay first draft due

Narrative essay peer review

M 29 JAN

102 Standard Release form due (see Freshman Guide to Writing p. 71).

Narrative essay sample work

Discuss rhetorical analysis of a visual text essay assignment prompt

W 31 JAN

Narrative essay final draft due

F 2 FEB

M 5 FEB

Rhetorical analysis of a visual text essay first draft due

Rhetorical analysis of a visual text essay peer review

W 7 FEB

Rhetorical analysis of a visual text essay sample work

F 9 FEB

M 12 FEB

NO CLASS – MARDI GRAS HOLIDAY

W 14 FEB

NO CLASS – MARDI GRAS HOLIDAY

F 16 FEB

Rhetorical analysis of a visual text essay final draft due

Discuss annotated bibliography assignment prompt

M 19 FEB

NO CLASS – MANDATORY CONFERENCES IN HLG 341

W 21 FEB

NO CLASS – MANDATORY CONFERENCES IN HLG 341

F 23 FEB

NO CLASS – MANDATORY CONFERENCES IN HLG 341

M 26 FEB

Annotated bibliography assignment first draft due

Annotated bibliography assignment peer review

W 28 FEB                                                                                                              

Annotated bibliography assignment sample work

R 1 MAR

NO CLASS – LAST DAY TO DROP CLASS WITH W GRADE

F 2 MAR

Discuss research essay assignment prompt

Annotated bibliography assignment final draft due

M 5 MAR

W 7 MAR

F 9 MAR

Research essay first draft due

Research essay peer review

M 12 MAR

Research essay sample work

W 14 MAR

Discuss multimodal composition assignment prompt

F 16 MAR

Research essay final draft due

Discuss portfolio and reflection assignment prompt

M 19 MAR

W 21 MAR

F 23 MAR

NO CLASS – MANDATORY CONFERENCES IN HLG 341

M 26 MAR

NO CLASS – MANDATORY CONFERENCES IN HLG 341

W 28 MAR

NO CLASS – MANDATORY CONFERENCES IN HLG 341

F 30 MAR

NO CLASS – SPRING BREAK

M 2 APR

NO CLASS – SPRING BREAK

W 4 APR

NO CLASS – SPRING BREAK

F 6 APR

NO CLASS – SPRING BREAK

M 9 APR

Multimodal composition assignment first draft due

Multimodal composition peer review

W 11 APR

Multimodal composition sample work (if anyone volunteers)

F 13 APR

M 16 APR

W 18 APR

F 20 APR

M 23 APR

W 25 APR

F 27 APR

Multimodal composition final draft due (includes statement)

Non-digital multimodal composition final projects must be handed in in class or to my office by 4:59 PM CST.

Portfolio and reflection due

Extra Credit due (optional)

All outstanding work due on Moodle by 11:59 pm CST.

F 4 MAY

NO CLASS – END OF SEMESTER

M 7 MAY

NO CLASS – GRADES DUE BY 12:00 PM CST


University of Louisiana at Lafayette

ENGL 102-003-40289: Writing and Culture

Spring 2018

Meeting times: MWF 8-8.50am

Classroom: HL Griffin Hall (HLG) 319

Instructor: Nicholas Mennona Marino, MA

Office: HL Griffin Hall (HLG) 341

Office Mailbox: HL Griffin Hall (HLG) 221

Office Hours: M/W 10am-12pm in HLG 341 and by appointment

Instructor Email: nicholas.marino1@louisiana.edu

Instructor Website: http://www.marinowriter.com/

Instructor Office Phone: (337) 482-5498

Instructor Mobile Phone: (610) 731-5091

 

Course Description and Objectives

This course will cover research based writing. Students will learn how to find scholarly sources, conduct a research question, formulate that question into a thesis, and provide evidence from both the sources and themselves to support that thesis. Students will also learn to view composition as not only concerned with alphanumeric, printed texts.

In English 102, students should learn basics of argument and academic writing including:

how to recognize an argument and explain what makes an argument different from a text whose purpose is solely to inform
the difference between a strong argument and a weak argument (evidence, credibility, logical fallacies, etc.)
how to craft an arguable claim and reason of appropriate scope
general academic norms and ethics involving intellectual property and (MLA) citation
a basic knowledge of classical rhetoric which helps explain why courses like English 101 and 102 remain required throughout the US
an understanding that the shifting expectations for literacy in the 21st century has led to less importance placed on the traditional typewritten essay, and instead an emphasis on multimodal texts that may or may not be digital

The assignments in English 102 focus on meeting the following goals:

Develop a writing project and multimodal composition project through multiple drafts
Connecting ancient ideas about rhetoric with modern exigencies, texts, and audiences
Learn to give and to act on productive feedback to works in progress
Develop facility in responding to a variety of situations and contexts calling for purposeful shifts in voice, tone, level of formality, design, medium, and/or structure
Locate and evaluate (for credibility, sufficiency, accuracy, timeliness, bias, and so on), including journal articles and essays, books, scholarly and professionally established and maintained databases or archives, and informal electronic networks and internet sources
Use strategies – such as interpretation, synthesis, and critique – to compose texts that integrate the writer’s ideas with those from appropriate sources
Practice applying citation conventions systematically in their own work

Textbooks

Course readings will be provided from the instructor digitally via Moodle. Course readings will be drawn from topics such as:

Classical rhetoric
Visual rhetoric
Multimodal Composition

The instructor may provide online access to selections from the following recommended (but not required) texts:

Graff, Gerald, and Cathy Birkenstein. "They Say / I Say": The Moves That Matter in Academic     Writing. 3rd edition. Norton, 2016.  

Identity: A Reader for Writers. Ed. John Scenters-Zapico. Oxford UP, 2013.

University of Louisiana at Lafayette. Freshman Guide to Writing. 7th Edition. Fountainhead         Press, 2016.

Assignments and Grade Breakdown

Your grade will consist of 3 essays, 1 multimodal composition project with a written explanation of the project, 1 annotated bibliography assignment, and 1 portfolio assignment (including a reflection on your work throughout the semester), as well as your participation and attendance grade. Extra credit will be offered to count towards your participation and attendance grade. You will receive assignment prompts for each assignment. You will choose the topic that you want to write about for each essay. The essay assignments must be at least 3 full pages double spaced or else they will be penalized for lack of length. You will receive feedback on your writing from your instructor and your peers. You will have the option to choose whether you want your work to be used for pedagogical or research purposes (whether anonymously or not). Part of the participation grade comes from student willingness to share freewriting responses.

Thee assignment sequence and grade breakdown is:

Narrative essay                                                                                               15%

A nonargument based writing assignment in which you reflect on an experience that helped you learn and or grow as a person.

Rhetorical analysis of a visual text essay                                                       15%

You will choose two visual texts to analyze and identify the rhetorical devices present that add onto the text’s argument. Your visual texts must include at least one image and at least one television commercial that is available for free online, at YouTube or elsewhere.

Annotated bibliography assignment                                                               10%

Pose a research question and formulate a potential answer to that question that will form your thesis. Then list in correct MLA format at least two scholarly sources that address this topic and state how you will use each source to complicate your argument in some way.

Research essay                                                                                                15%

This is an argument based assignment in which you will formulate a thesis and provide evidence supporting it. Your evidence must come from at least 2 scholarly sources as well as your own ideas, examples, and experiences. The annotated bibliography assignment is integrated into this essay, meaning that you do not need to find additional sources beyond those in the annotated bibliography assignment (assuming that you receive a satisfactory grade on the annotated bibliography assignment).

Multimodal composition assignment                                                             20%

This is an argument based assignment consisting of two parts: a multimodal composition and a document of no less than three full pages that explains the rationale, rhetorical motifs, choices, limitations, and potential usages of the multimodal composition. The rationale document must be a typewritten document. The multimodal composition cannot be a typewritten essay. It must use multiple modes and mediums. A YouTube video with sound, for example, uses visual and aural modes and the medium of video (though it could use even more modes and mediums depending on what is in the video). The assignment prompt will provide examples of multimodal projects. Multimodal projects need not be digital and do not require computers to be made. The multimodal project should include some typewritten or spoken words but there is no minimum requirement for the number of words for the project itself.

Portfolio and reflection                                                                                   15%

A reflection on how you have improved as a writer throughout the semester, which parts of the course contributed the most to that improvement, and which pieces of writing you are most proud of. You are encouraged to include screenshots or links to your multimodal composition if applicable.

Participation and attendance                                                                          10%

This includes not just attending class but willingness to participate in class discussions and share your in-class freewriting assignments. Poor attendance and participation can be counteracted by completing the extra credit assignment.

Note: The classical rhetoric reading assignments and multimodal reading assignments are for students’ benefit in their writing. Students will not be quizzed on the absorption of the material. Students may be asked to cite these readings and or notes from the lectures on them in their essays and in one of the extra credit assignment options. Students should always prioritize completing their essays on time over keeping up with the course readings. The course readings will be available on the course Moodle page.

Assignment Topics

Students in this course may write about their own topics, with the following restrictions. Students must select a different topic or text to write about for each writing assignment. It is up to the instructor’s discretion to determine whether the topics of each essay are different enough to be original works. The instructor will provide feedback on the drafts of these assignments, including whether the student must choose a different topic that they have not written about before for this course. Students must write about topics that are issues or matters up for debate with differing views on each side in interpreting them. Not all topics that are issues are necessarily scholarly. Students must be particularly selective in choosing a topic for the scholarly source essay.  

Attendance Policy

The ULL English department allows students to miss up to 10% of class meetings without penalty. This course will meet 33 times, not including two mandatory conferences throughout the semester. Missing either of the conferences counts as an absence. Students can miss up to 4 absences without penalty. The instructor excuses absences only if they are documented. More than 4 absences directly affects a student’s participation and attendance grade. Solid participation, when a student does show up to class, can counteract this, as can the optional extra credit assignment offered at the end of term. Missing excessive class time usually has an impact on a student’s grade beyond participation and attendance, as missing class means missing valuable time to work on one’s writing. 

Plagiarism Policy

Students that plagiarize in this class will automatically fail the assignment in question, except for minor citation issues that do not show an intent to deceive. Further plagiarism puts students at risk of automatically failing the course. The decision to fail the student for a second violation of plagiarism lies with the instructor and the severity of the offenses. Students are encouraged to check citation resources like the Purdue Online Writing Lab website (https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/), instructor materials on essay writing, and their textbooks. Both Writing Arguments and the Freshman Guide to Writing discuss plagiarism and how to avoid it. Students who are unclear about plagiarism should contact the instructor with any issues that they have in understanding it, specifically in terms of MLA style. 

For Students with Disabilities

In accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act, the University of Louisiana at Lafayette makes accommodations for students with disabilities. If you have a documented disability, please contact the Office of Disability Services (ODS) office at 337-482-5252 or ods@louisiana.edu during the first week of classes. ODS will assist you with an accommodation plan. The university also has a Supported Education Program (SEP, http://disability.louisiana.edu/SEP.html), which provides free confidential help on campus for students with psychological disabilities (Bipolar Disorder, Depression, Anxiety, etc.). Please contact Kim A. Warren, MSW, PhD, LCSW, Supported Education Advisor, at 482-5252 or at kimawarren@louisiana.edu. She is located in the Conference Center, Room 126.

Office Hours

It is important to take advantage of office hours. Your professors and instructors are busy people with responsibilities that span beyond the courses they teach. However, they must set aside two office hours each week per class section. During this time, students take priority for their teachers’ attention. No appointment is necessary for office hours. If you cannot attend the office hours listed for your section, please email me and we can arrange a different time to meet. All office hour meetings will be held in my office in HLG 341. Please come prepared with questions that you have about the course, the course readings, or your writing. If you have a question about something university related but not necessarily related to this class, I may still be able to help or direct you to who can help resolve your issue. Asking for help in college is not a sign of weakness but a sign of initiative to succeed, so take advantage of office hours! I’m paid to hold office hours and I have no problem “earning” that money. 

Technology policy

The use of technology is permitted in class so long as it does not cause a distraction to other students. Students may be asked to access the internet in class via laptop or mobile device. Students who do not have access to the internet through a laptop or mobile device will not be penalized but may have to rely on their classmates or the instructor to access the internet in class. 

Students should familiarize themselves with the technology resources available at the Dupré library and elsewhere on campus since this course includes a multimodal assignment (though that assignment does not require the use of a computer).

Students that are interested in composing video based multimodal projects should inquire about joining the AOC Community Media Center in downtown Lafayette. For an affordable yearly membership fee, students may rent digital video equipment. For more information, check out their website @ http://www.aocinc.org/.

Students may also borrow the instructor’s digital camera upon request, with the assumption that they will return it to the instructor in pristine condition.

Late work policy

The instructor does not distinguish between work turned in on time and work turned in late. However, not turning in work on time typically has a negative effect on a student’s grade because falling behind means that the student has less time to devote to each assignment as the semester progresses. Also, turning in work late means that the student misses valuable peer review feedback that improves a student’s writing process. The instructor may not have time to grade first drafts of assignments turned in late, but will be able to grade final drafts so long as they are turned in before the final deadline for all outstanding work.

The instructor will not penalize late work but strongly suggests that students turn in work on time. The instructor reserves the right to set a date, late in the semester, after which the instructor will not accept late work. The instructor will give students plenty of notice about setting such a date. If no date is specified by the instructor, all outstanding work will not be accepted after 27 April 2018 (the last day of class this semester).

Classroom conduct

The instructor is not responsible for making sure that students learn, but is responsible for maintaining an environment in which students can learn. The instructor reserves the right to remove from the classroom students that cause a disruption that threatens this environment.

ULL Writing Center

The Writing Center is a free service located on the first floor of Griffin Hall, in room 107. The Writing Center consultants are experienced writers and students who pride themselves on creating a comfortable environment for every phase of your writing project. From thesis statements, to research planning, document design, to just getting started, the Writing Center staff works to help you become more focused, organized, and confident with your work. In addition to providing the latest style manuals and handbooks, the Writing Center also operates a computer lab, located next door in Griffin Hall, room 108. Both of these services are free, student-operated, and devoted to helping you be a more successful and productive student. Walk-ins are accepted, but scheduling an appointment in advance (482-5224) is recommended. Students who are more than ten minutes late to an appointment must reschedule.

Campus Safety Information

Joseph Pons, Director of the Office of Environmental Health and Safety, has asked that in accordance with the UL Lafayette’s Environmental Health and Safety Procedures, to please include the following information on in all syllabi:

1.      University Police are the first responders for all emergencies on campus.  Dial 911 or 482-6447 to report any emergency.
2.      The Emergency Information Floor Plan is posted in the hallways for every building.  This document includes evacuation routes and other important information.  Please familiarize yourself with this document.
3.      In the event that the building fire alarm is sounded, please exit the building immediately and notify University Police. Do not use the building elevator - look for the illuminated Exit Signs to direct you to safety.
4.      During times of emergency, information may be available on the University's Emergency Hotline - 482-2222. This number is printed on the back of your ID card.
5.      The University utilizes a text message service to notify its students and employees of campus wide emergencies.  To subscribe to this service, log on to www.ul.mobilecampus.com .
6.      If you have a special medical condition that might render you incapacitated during class, please make this known to your instructor as soon as possible, including any emergency contact information for your next of kin or similar.

Class Schedule for MWF

Note: The instructor reserves the right to move assignment deadlines forward.

Note: Because of the inevitability of a course schedule not reflecting the hectic reality of teaching a class, this course schedule is subject to change and does not include required readings that will be posted to Moodle. Students are expected to read the assigned readings before each class. Students should check their Moodle page for this course in order to stay updated on which readings are due when.

Note: Most of the classical rhetoric readings are available at the Perseus Digital Library webpage. The link to this page is http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/ . On the homepage, type the name of the work or author in the search box in the top right of the page. You should see some search results. Click on the correct text (make sure you click on the English link instead of Latin or Greek) and then you can navigate from chapter to chapter on the text’s homepage. To navigate from one chapter to another, enter the chapter at the box in the top center of the page. Alternatively, you can click on the subsection links on the left side of the page.

W 10 JAN

Rhetoric hypothetical game

Primary questions

Class introductions

F 12 JAN

M 15 JAN

NO CLASS – MARTIN LUTHER KING HOLIDAY

W 17 JAN

CLASS CANCELED DUE TO WEATHER

DROP/ADD DEADLINE

Discuss narrative essay assignment prompt

F 19 JAN

M 22 JAN

W 24 JAN

F 26 JAN

Narrative essay first draft due

Narrative essay peer review

M 29 JAN

102 Standard Release form due (see Freshman Guide to Writing p. 71).

Narrative essay sample work

Discuss rhetorical analysis of a visual text essay assignment prompt

W 31 JAN

Narrative essay final draft due

F 2 FEB

M 5 FEB

Rhetorical analysis of a visual text essay first draft due

Rhetorical analysis of a visual text essay peer review

W 7 FEB

Rhetorical analysis of a visual text essay sample work

F 9 FEB

M 12 FEB

NO CLASS – MARDI GRAS HOLIDAY

W 14 FEB

NO CLASS – MARDI GRAS HOLIDAY

F 16 FEB

Rhetorical analysis of a visual text essay final draft due

Discuss annotated bibliography assignment prompt

M 19 FEB

NO CLASS – MANDATORY CONFERENCES IN HLG 341

W 21 FEB

NO CLASS – MANDATORY CONFERENCES IN HLG 341

F 23 FEB

NO CLASS – MANDATORY CONFERENCES IN HLG 341

M 26 FEB

Annotated bibliography assignment first draft due

Annotated bibliography assignment peer review

W 28 FEB                                                                                                              

Annotated bibliography assignment sample work

R 1 MAR

NO CLASS – LAST DAY TO DROP CLASS WITH W GRADE

F 2 MAR

Discuss research essay assignment prompt

Annotated bibliography assignment final draft due

M 5 MAR

W 7 MAR

F 9 MAR

Research essay first draft due

Research essay peer review

M 12 MAR

Research essay sample work

W 14 MAR

Discuss multimodal composition assignment prompt

F 16 MAR

Research essay final draft due

Discuss portfolio and reflection assignment prompt

M 19 MAR

W 21 MAR

F 23 MAR

NO CLASS – MANDATORY CONFERENCES IN HLG 341

M 26 MAR

NO CLASS – MANDATORY CONFERENCES IN HLG 341

W 28 MAR

NO CLASS – MANDATORY CONFERENCES IN HLG 341

F 30 MAR

NO CLASS – SPRING BREAK

M 2 APR

NO CLASS – SPRING BREAK

W 4 APR

NO CLASS – SPRING BREAK

F 6 APR

NO CLASS – SPRING BREAK

M 9 APR

Multimodal composition assignment first draft due

Multimodal composition peer review

W 11 APR

Multimodal composition sample work (if anyone volunteers)

F 13 APR

M 16 APR

W 18 APR

F 20 APR

M 23 APR

W 25 APR

F 27 APR

Multimodal composition final draft due (includes statement)

Non-digital multimodal composition final projects must be handed in in class or to my office by 4:59 PM CST.

Portfolio and reflection due

Extra Credit due (optional)

All outstanding work due on Moodle by 11:59 pm CST.

F 4 MAY

NO CLASS – END OF SEMESTER

M 7 MAY

NO CLASS – GRADES DUE BY 12:00 PM CST



Nick Marino

ENGL 102

Sec. 003, 012

17 january 2018

Narrative Essay

Recursiveness

Writing is a recursive process. The writer frequently moves from prewriting to drafting to editing and revising. The emphasis in college writing courses is on process, not product. In other words, writing is not about getting it right the first and only time, it is about improvement from draft to draft. To improve from one draft to another, the writer must be able to respond to critical feedback from their instructor and their peers. This is true regardless of the point of the writer’s work: to entertain, inform, argue a point, etc.

Prompt

Write an essay in which you describe an experience in which you learned something.

The prompt for this assignment is purposefully open ended because narrative essays (and creative nonfiction in general) is the same way. There is no need to argue for a position because learning is subjective, however, you should reiterate what it is that you learned. Learning does not necessarily have to mean in the context of school.

You should focus on a single experience, or a related group of experiences for your work to have cohesion. Because no argument is necessary, it is important to focus more so on matters of organization and context. Assume that your readers may not be familiar with the references you make in your piece and use your best judgment to provide as much context as you can to help them.

Questions for Consideration

Some questions that you should address in answering the prompt include:

What lesson(s) did you learn from your experience?
Who or what helped you learn these lessons?
If you could redo the experience you wrote about, what would you change in how you acted (if anything)?
How will you use what you learned from the experience in the future; how will it help you to prepare for similar (or different) experiences?

Organization

In contrast to argumentative essays, where you should state your thesis somewhere in the first paragraph, you have some flexibility in terms of where you sum up the point of your essay (by stating what you learned). You may find it better to wait until the end of your piece because that is the last thing a reader will read. You do not need to repeat the point of your essay. It is better to have more paragraphs than fewer so try to not insert more than one point in each paragraph of your piece.

Style

An assignment like this works best in 1st person prose. Dialogue may work better than describing what you said to others and vice versa, if your piece discusses other people. Also, you may find it beneficial to use pen names for the people you write about if you are concerned about them being revealed in your piece.

Your essay should otherwise adhere to MLA format and should include page numbers in the top right of each page with your last name preceding the number. Citation and a works cited page are both required if you are quoting directly from previously published material but not if you are quoting from the words of friends, family, etc. that came up in conversation.

Your essay must be at least three full, double-spaced pages to not be penalized for lack of length. The header of your essay and title count towards the page length but the works cited page (if applicable) does not. Your essay should have a creative title that previews what it will discuss.

Due Dates

The first draft is due in class 24 january 2018. Please bring at least one printed copy of your essay for peer review. You will receive digital feedback on your drafts from your instructor.

The final draft is due in class 31 january 2018. Please submit your first and final drafts digitally on the course Moodle page.


Nick Marino

ENGL 102

Sec. 003, 012

17 january 2018

Narrative Essay

Recursiveness

Writing is a recursive process. The writer frequently moves from prewriting to drafting to editing and revising. The emphasis in college writing courses is on process, not product. In other words, writing is not about getting it right the first and only time, it is about improvement from draft to draft. To improve from one draft to another, the writer must be able to respond to critical feedback from their instructor and their peers. This is true regardless of the point of the writer’s work: to entertain, inform, argue a point, etc.

Prompt

Write an essay in which you describe an experience in which you learned something.

The prompt for this assignment is purposefully open ended because narrative essays (and creative nonfiction in general) is the same way. There is no need to argue for a position because learning is subjective, however, you should reiterate what it is that you learned. Learning does not necessarily have to mean in the context of school.

You should focus on a single experience, or a related group of experiences for your work to have cohesion. Because no argument is necessary, it is important to focus more so on matters of organization and context. Assume that your readers may not be familiar with the references you make in your piece and use your best judgment to provide as much context as you can to help them.

Questions for Consideration

Some questions that you should address in answering the prompt include:

What lesson(s) did you learn from your experience?
Who or what helped you learn these lessons?
If you could redo the experience you wrote about, what would you change in how you acted (if anything)?
How will you use what you learned from the experience in the future; how will it help you to prepare for similar (or different) experiences?

Organization

In contrast to argumentative essays, where you should state your thesis somewhere in the first paragraph, you have some flexibility in terms of where you sum up the point of your essay (by stating what you learned). You may find it better to wait until the end of your piece because that is the last thing a reader will read. You do not need to repeat the point of your essay. It is better to have more paragraphs than fewer so try to not insert more than one point in each paragraph of your piece.

Style

An assignment like this works best in 1st person prose. Dialogue may work better than describing what you said to others and vice versa, if your piece discusses other people. Also, you may find it beneficial to use pen names for the people you write about if you are concerned about them being revealed in your piece.

Your essay should otherwise adhere to MLA format and should include page numbers in the top right of each page with your last name preceding the number. Citation and a works cited page are both required if you are quoting directly from previously published material but not if you are quoting from the words of friends, family, etc. that came up in conversation.

Your essay must be at least three full, double-spaced pages to not be penalized for lack of length. The header of your essay and title count towards the page length but the works cited page (if applicable) does not. Your essay should have a creative title that previews what it will discuss.

Due Dates

The first draft is due in class 24 january 2018. Please bring at least one printed copy of your essay for peer review. You will receive digital feedback on your drafts from your instructor.

The final draft is due in class 31 january 2018. Please submit your first and final drafts digitally on the course Moodle page.


Nick Marino

ENGL 102

Secs. 003, 012

7 february 2018

“’I miss you’ baseball cap.”

Appeals

This image uses all three types of rhetorical appeals. It uses logos by depicting a baseball cap, which is an item of clothing with a functional purpose. A cap keeps one’s head dry and keeps the sun off one’s face. Since the sun has harmful rays and since the rain can mess up one’s hairstyle, it is logical to want to cover your head and wearing a cap is one means of doing that. The creator of the cap appeals to emotion by means of the writing on the cap. The phrase is one we associate with romantic relationships. Longing is obviously an emotion, as is loneliness, and this cap seems to be expressing both. The creator appeals to ethos by showing the cleverness to replicate a commonplace sort of experience (typing something on Facebook chat and having someone else read it) on a commonplace piece of clothing (a baseball cap). The appeal to ethos is probably the weakest of the three since one could argue that this is not that clever a thing to do since there is no way to tell if the creator of the cap was the first person to do something like this.

Argument

            The argument behind making this cap and taking this photo is that technology has become so commonplace that it should be a means of representation for a person. Since so many of us use Facebook chat to communicate with others why shouldn’t we show that the same way we show off designer clothes or clothes with the logos of sports teams? But at the same time it is also sad that people increasingly identify themselves as online users because Facebook chat is not the same as talking to a person in real life. That’s why the creator used writing that signifies sadness. Having someone “see” your message doesn’t mean they will respond to it, whereas talking to someone in real life means that they will most likely respond or at the very least react to it. So the argument is that using technology like social media is now a means of self-expression but also that that realization is kind of depressing because real life experiences are always richer than digital ones, especially in terms of relationships (where one would be likely to type/receive what is written on the cap).

Purpose

            The purpose behind making this cap may be to sell them in order to make money. Alternatively the purpose may also be to reinforce the idea that talking to someone in real life is better than doing so online, even though there are times when the former may not be possible.

Audience

            The audience of this image is anyone who likes to wear baseball caps and who uses social media (especially Facebook) extensively. You can tell that it targets Facebook users because the writing at the bottom of the cap is identical to Facebook’s system of chat notifications. There may be a racial component to the audience in that the rhetor targets white people because the hand in the image is that of a white person.

Foregrounding

            The blue of the cap and the pink background contrast since one color is light and the other dark. The cap is foregrounded as the viewer focuses on it. There is nothing in the background besides the pink color so there is nothing to distract the viewer. The pink background simply makes it easier to focus on the cap.

Color

The blue of the cap and the pink background contrast so the cap is easier to see. Also, the colors on the cap replicate those of Facebook chat, from the blue bubbles to the white text. The use of blue on the cap perhaps is a reference to “feeling blue” which implies sadness, which is reflected in the writing.

Kairos

            Considering that millions, if not billions, of people use Facebook every day, this is a timely image that uses Kairos. The rhetor makes us aware of what it means to replicate personal, in real life conversations in a digital context, and how empty that can make us feel.

Representation

            This image has just one person in it, who seems to be white. That may tie into the rhetor’s argument, since the image could have just been the cap and the background. On the other hand, since the rhetor only includes a hand, that may be a reference to the parts of the body that compose messages on Facebook chat (the fingers).

Symbols/Metaphor

            All different types of people wear baseball caps, from ballplayers to filmmakers to the current president. To link a baseball cap to a replication of a text message on Facebook chat is to suggest that all different sorts of people use Facebook chat, just like all different types of people wear baseball caps. But the writing on the cap suggests that this is a sad reality and not something to celebrate.  

Rule of thirds

            To an extent the rhetor uses the rule of thirds. The cap is framed in the center and surrounded by blank space on either side. However, it is not evenly divided into thirds. Also, the pink background on either side does not really contribute to the visual text’s argument. Perhaps it does if the rhetor wanted to make the pink background stand for emptiness, since emptiness is part of the appeal to pathos used by the rhetor (along with longing).

Persuasiveness

            I’m not sure if I would buy this hat but it’s neat. It reminds me of girls that identify as “sad girls” on Tumblr. As a social media user I am well aware of how empty Facebook chat can be as compared to real life conversations. I like how this image pinpoints how addicted we are to social media and how we present ourselves as social media savvy in terms of how we dress. This image also reminds me of how some people have started wearing postinternet fashion.

“Sizzler Promotional Commercial 1991.”

Appeals

            Sizzler uses all three appeals. They appeal to logos by attempting to solve the problem of feeding the problem when both families are working. The ad appeals to pathos through the pleasure or happiness of eating good healthy food, especially the type of good healthy food that you choose. Sizzler shows ethos by catering to the needs of different diners with different tastes. It is believable that no matter what you want to eat, and no matter whether you want table service or a buffet, Sizzler will have what you are looking for, and it will likely be within your budget. This is credibility because Sizzler shows that they listen to what diners want, and it is the choices and tastes of diners that allow them to exist as a business.

Argument

            Sizzler argues that you should eat there because it gives you choices (buffet vs table service), it is affordable and offers delicious food, and because it fits into your busy lifestyle. Also, having choices while eating out is linked with American identity suggesting that eating at Sizzler is an American thing to do.

Purpose

            The purpose of this ad is to get people to eat at Sizzler. It may be a promotional video for training purposes (according to the Youtube title) but the end result of it is to help Sizzler make money as a business.

Audience

            The audience is Americans who like to eat out, specifically those with children as there are a lot of families featured in this ad. The ad’s audience may have extended beyond America to an international audience in 1991. It is hard to tell from the ad however.

Color

            With the exception of the title screens showing the Sizzler logo, the colors in this commercial are bright, including sunrises and brightly lit dining rooms. This suggests that Sizzler is to be trusted because we can see what’s in the food in the same way that we can see other people in the light.

Syllogism/Enthymeme      

            This ad uses an enthymeme by emphasizing choices and freedom. It is implied (but not stated) that having choices and freedom when eating out is better than not having choices or freedom. It is also implied (but not stated) that there is something inherently American about choices and freedom, since the voiceover discusses both ideas (being American and having choices and freedom). This is even though people living in other countries also have choices and freedom when eating out. Another enthymeme is the connection between both parents working signifying that there is less time to cook. The idea that you cannot cook and work at the same time is implied but not stated.

Kairos

            This ad uses Kairos by situating it in the context of the early 90s when America was getting used to the idea of both parents working. Sizzler uses examples of women working jobs that were traditionally considered to be only for men in the past (construction for example).  

Representation

            This ad features a diverse cast in terms of race but also in terms of age and in terms of occupation. The point of this is to suggest that all different types of Americans appreciate what Sizzler has to offer as a restaurant. Some of the characters in this ad are stereotypical Americans; the yuppie executive, the sailor, the cowboy, the sea captain, etc.

Rhetorical Situation

            This ad has a rhetorical situation. The exigence is that more parents are working which means that they don’t have time to both work and cook dinner. Therefore they need to find an alternative to cooking that still allows them to feed their family. The audience in this case is people with families that live near Sizzler restaurants (presumably American families since this ad is for an American audience). The constraints include the possibility that nobody in a given family will enjoy the food Sizzler offers. Another constraint is that families may not be able to afford Sizzler meals even though Sizzler mentions in the ad that their food is affordable.

Symbols/Metaphors

            Sizzler stands for having choices and freedom. Those two things stand for being American. Some of the cast also act as symbols. The girl playing baseball is an expression of empowering girls and also an expression of national identity (because baseball is America’s pastime). Also, the sailor with his girlfriend shows support for the military and for heterosexual relationships.  

Tone

            There is a positive tone to this commercial. The music has upbeat lyrics and a sense of progression in the rhythm that culminates in a sick saxophone solo. The expressions of the Sizzler workers in the ad and the diners and the rest of the cast (pretty much everyone is smiling) contributes to the positive tone.

Persuasiveness

            I was not persuaded by this commercial because it dates from the pre-ironic age of commercials. Some of the claims made in this ad are corny to a modern audience and the claim of America being linked with choices is kind of hard to believe since many countries have similar styles of government. The food did look good but that’s kind of to be expected in restaurant ads. I may have felt differently about the persuasiveness of this ad if I had a family because then I would be more likely to eat out.

Works Cited

“’I miss you’ baseball cap.” Facebook, uploaded by Closetheinternet, 19 july 2017,

https://www.facebook.com/closetheinternet/photos/a.417367175137250.1073741828.417355161805118/657684421105523/?type=3.

“Sizzler Promotional Commercial 1991.” Youtube, uploaded by Rachel Redhouse, 3 September   2012, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E3YGtQ40Qvs. 


Nicholas Mennona Marino

ENC 1101/2

26 june 2017

ENC Paper Writing Guidelines

What separates a passing paper from a not passing paper in ENC courses is the existence of an argument. While citation, grammar, evidence, and organization are all important, argument is the most important part of an ENC paper.

To formulate an argument, a writer takes a position on an issue and provides reasons that support that position. An argument does not have to be original (something that has never been thought before) but it should be the product of your thoughts and ideas. Not all statements are arguable and thus not all statements are issues.

A triangle is a shape consisting of three edges.

This is a general statement of knowledge, not an issue or thesis or argument (though it probably was an argument when the triangle was first formulated as a geometric shape). This statement cannot be disagreed with because it is a mathematical fact.

The Chicago Cubs won the 2016 World Series.

This is an established fact and is not arguable, so it is neither an issue nor a thesis nor an

argument. There is no issue at stake because it is an established fact, not a matter up for debate. However, a writer could make an argument as to why and how they won that particular World Series.

Should the city of Coral Gables ban grocery stores from handing out plastic bags?

This is an issue because one can take a side in answering the question. It is not an

argument or thesis. Arguments and theses never take the form of a question but posing questions and answering them can lead to an argument that is expressed in a thesis.

A position must take a side. A position that takes both sides on an issue is not a position.

Life is both difficult and easy because you can connect with other people but you are often stressed out by your responsibilities to them.

This position is not clear because it is on both sides of the issue. So this is not an argument nor is it a thesis.

A thesis statement sums up the argument of your paper. The thesis consists of your position and reasons that support it. Think of your paper as a movie and your thesis as the trailer. The trailer of the movie highlights what will happen in the movie. It does not show everything but rather it touches on issues of theme, tone, plot, etc. Likewise, your thesis statement should briefly summarize what your paper will do.

Study abroad should be required for American undergraduates.

This is a position on an issue. The issue is whether study abroad should be required for American undergraduates. The position here is affirmative.

Study abroad should be required for American undergraduates because I studied abroad in my junior year and I learned a lot and partied hard.

This is a position but not a thesis because the reasons are tied to individual experience and not to facts, reasons, or topics related to the issue. This does not mean that individual experiences cannot be used as evidence in a paper. It does mean that individual experience should not be framed directly as a reason supporting a thesis.

Study abroad should be required for American undergraduates because it promotes cultural understanding and helps students find jobs in an era of globalization. Study abroad also helps shy students to make friends because it forces introverted students to interact with their peers and people in the host country.

This is a thesis because the writer takes a position and then supports it with reasons that make sense. Notice that each of the reasons are arguable. This means that you can disagree with literally everything in this thesis statement. That is what shows that it is an argument. Notice also that this thesis statement is two sentences long. A thesis statement does not have to be a single sentence.

The argument based papers for this class should include a header, title, introduction, body paragraphs, a conclusion, and a works cited section. Reflection and response assignments should include a header, title, and body paragraphs. The title for reflection and response assignments do not need to be creative. Because reflection and response assignments are not argument based, an introduction and conclusion are not necessary, nor is a works cited page. In accordance with MLA format each page should be numbered in the top right corner, and your last name should go before the page number. All written assignments should follow MLA format in terms of headers, page numbers, and margins.

The header identifies the paper and makes it easy for the instructor (and for you) to organize and file it. The header should be in the top left side of the first page of your paper. It has four components:

Your Name

Your Instructor’s Name

Course title and section

Date you turned in the assignment

For the instructor’s name, just the last name is fine and there is no need to include Dr. or Professor because I am neither. The header should be singled spaced while the rest of the paper should be double spaced.

            The title of your paper should be centered on the page. The title should not be just a replication of a term used by one of the authors you are citing. However, that does not mean that a title cannot use a term invented by the author(s) cited in your paper.

Emerging Adulthood

This is a term from Henig’s essay “What Is It About 20-somethings?” and is by itself not

a proper title because it just replicates the term found in the essay. A title should give some indication of the writer’s position on the issue.

Emerging Adulthood is Cultural and Synthetic, Not Biological and Real

This is a title because the writer expresses some opinion on emerging adulthood (which is

the subject of the prompt “is emerging adulthood a real life stage?”). There is not enough room in a title to express the writer’s full argument but there is enough room to express the writer’s position on the issue. Titles can be questions but it is usually easier to make them definitive statements because it is easier for a writer to show his or her position by declaring something as opposed to posing a question. Titles should never be questions that are merely the restatement of the writing prompt. The instructor enjoys reading creative and interesting titles because a good title can preface a writer’s style and opinions on the topic discussed in the prompt. Also, in future writing situations, a clever title can draw attention to the paper and encourage others to keep reading even if they are not obligated to (unlike your first-year composition instructor).

            The works cited section does not need to be on a separate page. It should follow your conclusion and be separated from the end of your conclusion by at least one line. The purpose of a works cited section is to allow the reader to reference the sources cited in your work. Again, this is a conceit in first-year writing because the instructor will know the sources that you cite because the instructor assigned them (unless you use outside sources of your own). However, in ENC 1102, there is a requirement to use outside sources that the writer finds on his or her own, so the instructor may not be familiar with the sources cited. In any case, it is useful to get practice in knowing how to cite evidence even in ENC 1101 because you will be expected to know how to do it in ENC 1102 and in more advanced writing courses in your major. Also, your grade on a paper depends partially on correctness in citation.

            The works cited section should begin with a centered line with “Works Cited” (obviously without the quotation marks). The entries should be listed alphabetically (by the author’s last name) on the left margin. If an entry extends beyond one space, the second line of that entry should be indented one space to the right (which can be done by pressing the tab key once).

            The Purdue University Online Writing Lab website contains information on how to cite sources and format works cited pages for multiple style formats (MLA, APA, Chicago style, etc.) ENC courses use MLA format. The Purdue OWL website is https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/.

Further information about citation can also be found in the Hacker guide mentioned in your syllabus. Both the website and the Hacker guide also discuss how to cite sources intext, which is discussed below in the textual evidence section.

An introduction does two things: it frames the issue within a wider context and it tells the reader what the writer’s argument will be.

Study abroad is not particularly common for undergraduate students. This has caused concern among university administrators and employers that work in global industries. Administrators want to spread the brand of their college abroad and use study abroad to show off the talents of their students. Employers that work in industries affected by globalization like banking, information technology, and translation (to name a few) are concerned by the lack of international experience of college graduates and see increasing study abroad as a means of resolving this issue. Study abroad should be required for American undergraduates because it promotes cultural understanding and helps students find jobs in an era of globalization. Requiring study abroad would also be a great way for colleges to promote themselves abroad and encourage international students to apply.

The first sentences frame the writing prompt (“should study abroad be required for

American undergraduates?”) as a problem. This is a useful strategy because it legitimizes your writing by drawing attention to an issue that needs to be dealt with. When you pose a problem and address it in your paper, it gives you the illusion of authority as someone who can solve that problem. This is a conceit. Obviously, you won’t solve that problem (not during this class at least). Nevertheless, it can be useful to ask the following questions when composing your introduction.

Who cares about this issue?
What are the various sides to this issue?
If my view of this issue is right, so what? What happens? Who is affected?
Why is this issue important? Why is it an issue?
What happens if no one pays attention to resolving this issue?
Who are the major players involved in this issue?
What are the major texts involved in this issue and what do they argue? (for this class “major texts” means the ones assigned by the instructor for each paper prompt)

It is also useful to introduce the paper topic to the reader. Even though this is not necessary because your paper will most likely only be read by your instructor, this is still a useful practice that is worth doing. First-year composition is about preparing students for their writing lives in academic and professional contexts. In such contexts, your readers may not know the answers to the above questions. They also may not care. Your writing must make them care. This is particularly true when writing in a non-academic context.

            It is fine if your reason for writing these papers is to get a good grade so that you can move on in college. However, your justification for writing must be stronger than that. This will prepare you for writing to an audience that is not forced to read your work and give you graded feedback; an audience, in other words, unlike your first-year composition instructor. You should use this class as an opportunity to invent an audience that will likely not need to be invented in your further academic and (especially) professional writing lives.

            Your introduction should include your thesis, whether it is a single sentence or more than one sentence. Where you place your thesis within the introduction is up to you. However, sometimes it makes a stronger effect on the reader if they know the context of the issue (which you cover by answering the above questions) before they get to your argument. The most common way to write an introduction paragraph in first-year composition is to start with context and end with your thesis as the last sentence or sentences of the paragraph.  

            The body paragraphs of your paper contain the evidence for your claims. Evidence can be either textual or anecdotal.

            Textual evidence is drawing from texts that should relate to the topic of your paper. Whether they were assigned as class readings or not, the texts you use should complicate, support, or even go against your position. The texts you choose should have something to say (figuratively speaking) about your argument and the writing prompt. Texts, in this context, does not only mean written texts but any sort of text or item of media that can be analyzed – movies, TV shows, music albums, paintings, buildings, websites, etc.

Remember to always cite your sources when you use textual evidence using MLA format to avoid plagiarism. You can cite your sources by either paraphrasing or quoting. When quoting, textual evidence must be introduced by referring to the author at either the beginning or the end of the sentence. This is not necessary for paraphrasing, but in both forms of textual evidence there should be a parenthetical after the quote and before the period ending the sentence. There should not be freestanding sentences that are pure quotation in your paper.

The benefit of paraphrasing is that it frees up more space in your paper to formulate your argument because you can summarize what a source says in your own words. Paraphrasing only makes sense if you can summarize the source in fewer words as compared to quoting. Therefore, if you want to use a short sentence from a source for textual evidence in a paper, it makes sense to quote, and if you want to use a longer sentence for textual evidence in a paper, it makes sense to paraphrase. No matter whether you paraphrase or quote a source, you should devote the following sentence or two to explaining the source’s idea(s) and showing how it fits into your argument. You should do this even if you disagree with the source and you are using the textual evidence as part of a counterargument.

Aristotle addresses the potential to abuse rhetoric by stating “and even if someone who misuses this sort of verbal capacity might do the greatest possible damage, this is a problem common to all good things except virtue and applies particularly to the most advantageous, such as strength, health, wealth, and strategic expertise – if one used these well one might do the greatest possible good and if badly the greatest possible harm” (Aristotle 69).

This is a successful example of a quotation because the author is introduced and the

quotation ends with a parenthetical including the author’s name and page number from the book that the quote is taken from[i]. Here the introduction precedes the quote. But sometimes it is better, particularly with shorter quotes, to start with the quote and follow with the introduction or framing or acknowledgment of who you are quoting. The point is that you should not simply “drop in” quotes as separate sentences without giving indication that you are quoting even if you still include quotation marks and a parenthetical. If you quote first and introduce later you can place the parenthetical at the end of the quote or at the end of the sentence after your introduction of the quote.

Aristotle addresses the potential to abuse rhetoric by arguing that anything good can be abused (except virtue) meaning that good things can cause great benefits when used well but can also cause great harm when used badly (Aristotle 69).

This is a paraphrase of the previous quote. Notice that it is shorter than the quote; the

paraphrase contains only 37 words, including the framing of the author, while the quotation contains 71 words, including the framing of the author. In this case, the paraphrase summarizes succinctly Aristotle’s point about how almost anything can be used for the wrong purposes. However, the paraphrase omits Aristotle’s comments on the sorts of people with qualities that are particularly prone to abusing seemingly good things (“the most advantageous, such as strength, health, wealth, and strategic expertise”). If these sorts of details are important for your paper, it is probably better to either include them in the paraphrase or to just quote all or part of Aristotle’s ideas on this subject.

Aristotle addresses the potential to abuse rhetoric by arguing that anything good can be abused (except virtue) meaning that good things can cause great benefits when used well but can also cause great harm when used badly, particularly when dealing with people that are “the most advantageous” and or have “strength, health, wealth, and strategic expertise” (Aristotle 69).

            This is a blending of both paraphrasing and quoting. It is longer than the paraphrasing at 56 words, but it is still shorter than the quotation, even though that word count includes the introduction of the author. The point is that there is flexibility in incorporating textual evidence into your paper, as most of the time either a quotation or paraphrase or a combination of both in the same sentence can be appropriate.

            One other important part of textual evidence is always using the present tense when addressing the ideas of others, even in the case of authors who have been long dead like Aristotle. The point of using present tense is to acknowledge that the fixed meaning of a text is never settled, even for a text like Aristotle’s The Art of Rhetoric (from which the previous quote is taken) which has been debated by scholars for centuries. There is no fixed meaning of any text, meaning that you should consider these texts as part of a conversation, an ongoing conversation, that you are contributing to. To state that s/he argued (instead of argues) in whatever text is to hint that your formulation of their argument in the text is final and fixed.

            Anecdotal evidence is personal examples that work best when the writer uses 1st person voice. The point of an anecdote, in a first-year composition paper, is to show how an argument makes sense in a realistic, everyday scenario. Personal observations, conversations, or even experiences count as examples that support your argument. In contrast to textual evidence, which should always use the present tense, anecdotal evidence works well regardless of the tense used, whether past or present or future.

            For purposes of writing papers, it is not possible for the instructor to verify whether anecdotes actually happened to the writer, or whether they are products of the writer’s imagination. This is not an important issue. However, fictitious examples or anecdotes should make sense and should represent reality even if they are imaginary.

            The number of body paragraphs is up to the writer. Generally it is advisable to only discuss one point or topic in a single body paragraph.

Another component of a successful paper that is found in a body paragraph is a counterargument. A counterargument is a concession made by the writer to an alternative view of the issue. Rhetoric suggests that truth is rarely evident, but that a persuasive text does not have to be truthful. Because we rarely know the truth about a given matter, it is not surprising that we have multiple, conflicting views of it.

            A successful counterargument will incorporate an alternative view of the issue while showing why that view is misguided or wrong. It is a delicate balance. If a writer shows too much sympathy for the position of the opposition (as shown in the counterargument), it will compromise his or her faith in his or her argument. The trick is to be fair to the other side while not doubting for a second that you are right and that they are wrong. Your own word is not enough to persuade your audience that your view is the right one and their view is the wrong one. You must show how your view more faithfully adheres to the truth than theirs does (or at least is more persuasive than theirs is) by using both types of evidence. Using a counterargument increases your persuasiveness because it shows the audience that you understand the opposing view and that you are not taking your position for granted as true. 

The conclusion of a paper first restates the argument and then at least attempts to answer the following questions:

What should be done next about this issue?
Who should take action about this issue and in what ways?
What could happen if we ignore this issue?
What could happen if we accept a different view of this issue?

As with the introduction, imagine that you are an expert on the topic you are writing

about. What sort of things would you recommend in order to deal with the problem you explored in your paper? Those suggestions belong in your conclusion, even if your paper will likely not lead to any action taken in resolving the issue.

What is the point of restating one’s argument in a conclusion? Much of composition

theory stems from the ancient tradition of rhetoric, which began (in the Western tradition at least) in the Ancient Greek world of the 5th century BC. Many ancient rhetoric texts dealt with speechmaking more so than writing. This was for two reasons: there were lower levels of written literacy in those days as compared to today, and participation in civics did not require written literacy as it does today. Composition theory has borrowed heavily from rhetoric and from speechmaking by extension.

One example of this is borrowing that the conclusion of a speech is the last thing that the audience hears. That realization has carried over from speechmaking into argumentative writing. Writers restate their argument in a conclusion partly out of tradition. Writers also do this out of politeness toward the reader. Particularly in longer papers, it is useful for the reader to have more than one place in the paper where they can find the writer’s argument. It may seem unnecessary to repeat the argument twice in short papers in a first-year composition course, but the idea is to learn this skill in organization now, so that it will be easier to implement when writing longer papers in the future.

Good writing is good manners.


[i] The Aristotle quote comes from Aristotle. The Art of Rhetoric. Trans. Hugh Lawson-Tancred. Penguin, 2004.